Precautions for packaging selection of the hottest

2022-07-30
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Precautions for packaging selection of meat products (II)

2. common packaging materials for meat products

different types of meat and meat products require different fresh-keeping and storage conditions. Therefore, there are many kinds of packaging materials used. According to the types of products, meat packaging materials can be divided into fresh-keeping packaging materials, low-temperature storage meat packaging materials and normal temperature storage meat packaging materials

(L) materials suitable for fresh-keeping packaging

① fresh-keeping film

is generally an ultra-thin packaging machine made of single-layer polyvinylidene chloride=_ Blank> transparent film. This film has high oxygen and humidity resistance, high heat-resistant temperature, and is easy to cut off when packaging. At the same time, the film itself also has strong adhesion and is easy to use. At present, traditional meat products, fresh meat, semi-finished products, cheese, vegetables, fruits, etc. retailed in supermarket freezers are usually packed with this film

② film for cooling meat

this film is a high shrinkage multi-layer sample 2 composite films produced by special co extrusion technology. In the center of the film, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) is used as barrier material, and polyolefin is used as outer layer on both sides. The film has high shrinkage at low temperature and excellent transparency and luster; The permeability of oxygen, water vapor and other gases is very small, so that the package can be kept in a stable state for a long time; It has excellent hot water shrinkage, can closely stick the meat, so that the meat juice is not easy to exude, and makes the operation of the packaging process easier; Both card punching and heat sealing packaging equipment are suitable for use. This kind of film can be used to pack not only chilled meat (such as chilled beef, chilled pork, chilled mutton, Turkey, chicken, etc.), but also cooked meat products (such as fork roast meat, bacon, meat pie, sausage, large ham, sausage), cheese, fresh fish and aquatic products

(2) film for low temperature storage of meat products

low temperature meat products refer to those cooked meat products whose central temperature reaches 63 ℃ and is kept for 30 minutes during the ripening process. Although the pathogenic bacteria have been killed, there are still some high temperature resistant spores, so they must be stored at low temperature. There are many packaging materials suitable for this product, including natural casing, collagen casing, fiber casing, cellulose casing, various plastic films, etc

① natural casings

natural casings are processed from the intestines of goats, sheep, pigs and cattle. This kind of casing has good smoke permeability, air permeability and elasticity. It is edible and can be smoked, dried and boiled. It can show good color after smoking. Harbin big red sausage, Guangdong sausage, breakfast sausage, hot dog, frankfurter sausage, etc. are all filled with this kind of casing. The defects of natural casings are inconsistent specifications and poor mechanical adaptability. Because casings themselves are a good environment for microbial growth, they are easy to be polluted

② collagen casing

this casing is generally made of bovine collagen. This kind of casing has good smoke permeability, air permeability and mechanical strength. It has uniform specifications and a variety of varieties. It can be eaten, smoked and boiled. It is evenly colored during smoking, and is suitable for mechanized production and clock in. This kind of casing should be soaked in warm water for about 10 minutes before use, and then filled with high precision after rehydration. The filling shall be solid, and any form of smoking and cooking process can be used. After drying and smoking, the maximum cooking temperature shall be controlled below 80 ℃. After cooking, it can be cooled by spraying or water bath. This casing can be used to make vienna sausage, breakfast sausage, hot dog sausage and other kinds of steamed sausage

③ cellulose casings

are casings directly blown with cellulose glue. Breathable and permeable, smokeable, good mechanical strength, suitable for high-speed automatic production. This kind of casing is not edible. The casing does not need to be treated before use and can be directly filled. It is mainly used for making small diameter intestines such as hot dog intestines and Frankfurt intestines

④ fiber casing

is a product made of cellulose glue and a layer of paper. High mechanical strength, can punch card; It has permeability to cigarette set and no penetration to fat; Not edible, but smokeable and printable; It can shrink during drying. The casing shall be soaked before use (the soaking time for printing shall be longer), and shall be filled firmly (holes can be pierced for exhaust during filling). Before smoking, the casing surface shall be completely dried, otherwise the smoking color will be uneven, and it can be sprayed or cooled by water bath after cooking. The casing is suitable for processing all kinds of cold cut sausage, all kinds of dry or semi dry sausage, smoked sausage, cooked sausage and Tongji ham

⑤ fiber coated casing

is made of cellulose viscose, a layer of paper, and a layer of polyvinylidene chloride is coated on the inner surface of the casing. The casing has good barrier property, can prevent the product from losing water during storage, and strengthen the protection against microorganisms; High shrinkage, plump and beautiful appearance, can be printed; But it cannot be smoked or eaten. Before use, it should be soaked in warm water. When filling, it should be filled firmly (no holes can be pierced). It can be boiled to the required central temperature, and then cooled by cold water spray or water bath. Suitable for all kinds of cooking sausage. The products with such casings do not need to be repackaged

⑥ plastic casings include polyvinylidene chloride casings, nylon casings (polyamide casings), polymer casings (such as polyester), etc

polyvinylidene chloride casing: this kind of casing is a cylindrical or sheet casing made of copolymer film of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride. This kind of casing can effectively block water and oxygen, and can withstand 121 ℃ damp heat, cold, acid, alkali and grease. It has no water absorption and has beautiful luster. This casing is suitable for ham and sausage (such as ham sausage, fish sausage, etc.) produced by high-frequency heat sealing and filling. The manufacturers of such casings are represented by Wuyu chemical, Asahi Huacheng of Japan and Dow of the United States. This kind of casing is also widely used for normal temperature preservation of high-temperature sterilized products

polyamide casing: also known as nylon casing, it is a single-layer or multi-layer casing processed from nylon 6. Single layer products have air permeability and water permeability, and are generally used for smoked and peeled and sliced meat products. The multi-layer casing is waterproof, airtight, can be printed, is not corroded by acid, oil, grease, etc., is not conducive to the growth of fungi and bacteria, and can shrink during cooking. It has strong mechanical strength and elasticity, and is resistant to high temperature sterilization. Before use, it should be soaked in 30 ℃ water. During filling, it should be filled firmly (no holes can be pierced). After cooking, it can be cooled by spraying or water bath. It is suitable for making all kinds of cooked sausage, black sausage, liver sausage, head meat sausage, quick sliced sausage, fish sausage, etc

polyester casing: this casing is impermeable to air and water; Can be printed; High mechanical strength; Not eroded by acid, alkali, grease and organic solvents; Easy to peel. It is divided into contractile and non contractile. The contractile casings can be well adhered to the contents after hot processing, and can be used for the packaging of non smoked, steamed sausage, poultry roll, steamed ham, sliced meat, fresh game, fish, etc., and deep frozen food. In addition, there are polyester films specially used for packaging roasted meat products, such as the packaging film for roasted chicken. Of course, the film can also be used for microwave food, semi-finished product packaging, etc. Polyester casings do not need to be soaked before use. They should be filled firmly during filling, but holes cannot be pierced; After filling, the intestines should be kept in hot water above 95 ℃ for several seconds in order to ensure the contraction of the casing. The temperature during cooking is 80 ~ 85 ℃, and it should be cooled by spraying or water bath after cooking. Non shrink casings are mainly used to pack fresh meat, raw sausage and other meat products that do not need to be heated

composite bag: there are composite films produced by coextrusion of the same or similar plastics (common is coextrusion between polyolefin plastics) and films produced by coextrusion of different plastics (mainly coextrusion of high polar nylon PA, ethylene vinyl alcohol evai, polyvinylidene chloride PVDC and non-polar polymer compounds such as polypropylene PP, polyethylene PE, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer EVA, etc.). The composite film can be printed, waterproof and airtight, with high mechanical strength, wide application range and low price. It is suitable for the secondary packaging of various meat products. In addition, there are also low-temperature meat products packaged in tin. After pasteurization, the products can be stored for 6 months at low temperature. This kind of packaging is mainly used for the processing of exported meat products

(3) packaging for meat products stored at room temperature

meat products stored at room temperature refer to those packaged with impermeable materials and sterilized at above 121 ℃, which can be circulated at room temperature and have a shelf life of more than 6 months. The materials suitable for such packaging must be non permeable and resistant to high temperature sterilization. The commonly used packing materials for meat products include tin, aluminum foil, composite bags, glass cans and polyvinylidene chloride films

① the tinplate is made of tinplate. It is mainly used for the packaging of canned meat, such as canned lunch meat, canned fish, etc. the products of this kind of packaging can be guaranteed for more than 1 year under normal temperature

② aluminum foil cans are formed by stamping aluminum foil. It is mainly used for canned meat

③ composite bag

is a composite film for cooking based on nylon (PA) and polypropylene (PP) through coextrusion process with high-temperature resistant adhesive resin, or it is made of aluminum foil composite, which can withstand 121 ℃ sterilization and prevent external oxygen from entering the bag, so as to effectively prevent the deterioration of materials in the bag and keep meat products at room temperature for 6 months. It is mainly used for the packaging of roast chicken and beef preserved at room temperature

④ polyvinylidene chloride film this film has been introduced before, which can be used for packaging both low-temperature meat products and high-temperature sterilized meat products. For example, it is widely used in the packaging of ham sausage

⑤ at present, glass cans are mainly used for the packaging of canned fruits, but rarely used for the packaging of meat

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